Proto-BasqueGreekAnatolianHatticHurro-UrartianSumerianHurrianProto-ArmenianKartvelian
1ps*niἐγώ*ʔúgiš- (Hu.), i(e)š- (U.)nge26, nga, men2,3*ec/*ez*men
2ps*(h)iσύ*tÏgwa-fe- (Hu.)za*tu*sen
3ps(h)ura (prob. from *haur)αὐτός-asa-maniin, ni, naHurrian*na-/*no-*e-g-
1pp*guἡμεῖςú-e-eš (H.)aš-, eš-, uš-šatti(-lla) (Hu.)me-en-dè(-en) ("to be" + 1pp ending)*menk' (but *mer- in compounds)*čwen
2pp*zuὑμεῖςšu-me-eš (H.)-abba (Hu.)me-en-zè(-en) ("to be" + 2pp ending)Hurrian>*ǰu-k'*tkwen, *štkwen ? (on basis of unexpected Svan variant)
3ppαὐτοί-e (H.)-alla (Hu.)e-ne-neHurriannrank'Kartvelian
this*haurὅδε*ḱósana, imallenanni (Hu.), ini (U.)-ég/-ék/-íg/-e (indicating immediate vicinity of the speaker); ne(-e), ne.en, -bi/-bé(used with animate class)HurrianArmenian*ay-so-, *so-*e-g-, *a-ma-
that*harἐκεῖνος*ʔóniani (Hu.)-ri (distant from the vicinity of the speaker, contrast -ég/...), ne(-e), ne.en, -bi/-bé (animate class)Hurrian*da-/do- (reference to addressee), *na-/*no- (reference to 3rd party)*a-ma-
here*hauen (formed from *haur "this")ἔνθαka-a-ša (H.), zāu̯i(n) (L.)HurrianSumerianHurrian*ay-so- "this" + *teɫ- "place"*a-k-
there(h)oriἐκεῖapiya (H.)Hurrian-še ?HurrianArmenian*ay-no- "that" + *teɫ- "place"*i-k-
who*nor (interrogative pron. *enor, unexpected as Proto-Basque was generally prefix-less; even earlier form may have been *no- interrogative stem + *r from *haur)τίς*kwi-, *kwo- awi/abi (Hu.)a-ba, àm*(h)o*win
what*zer (interr. *ezer, see note under 'who;' Pre-Proto-Basque may have been *ze- interrogative stem + *r formed from *haur)τί*kwi-, *kwo-aw- (Hu.)àm ~ ta-àm (what ~ what?), a-na*hi-*ma-
where*non (*no- interr. stem also in 'who' + *-n locative case)ποῦ*kuenzan, kuwari (L.)Hurrianme-a/mí-a/me-, a, kiHurrianArmenian*y-ur-*sa-d
when*no(i)z (*-i- is inexplicable, probably idiosyncratic development prior to Proto-Basque; *no- interr. stem + *-z instr./abl. case)πότε*tokwe, < PIE *món-h2ent, *h1om-h3eai, inna, undu (Hu.)a, ud
how*nola (*no- + *-la), *zelan (from *ze- + *-lan)πῶς*món, kuwati (L.)inua-na-gim/a-na-gin7-nam, me-a/mí-aHurrian*monc'
not*ezeοὐ (unk.)*ne-, *no- ?-u-, -wa-, -kkV- (Hu.), ui, -uri (U.)nuHurrianmi, oč*mad
all*guz-(t)i (*-t-i is one of the mysteries of PB)ἅπαςdapi(ant) (H., unk.), ḫūmant- (H.), *pinku-, tanimma/i- (L., unk.)šua-nna (Hu., sing.), šua-lla (Hu., pl.), šui-ni- (U., sing.) šuy-a- (U., pl.)dù/r̂úHurrian*bolor-ti-k'*qowl-
many*(h)anitz (first element rel. to *handi?)πολύς< PIE *meǵh2-teuna (Hu.)lu, ešHurrian*(p)oləwKartvelian
some*badV/*bade + *-zuτις*kwi-HurrianSumerianHurrian*mcire- (poss. from a verbal circumfix, implying pre-form *cir ?)
few*tipi, *guti, also PB fossilized idioms *bi ez bada laur "2-4" and *bi ez bada hiru(r) "2-3"ὀλίγοςtēpu- (H.)Hurrianlal/láHurrian*mcire- (see note in 'some')
other*bertzeἄλλοςtaki (H., from Hurrian?), < PIE *tmh1-oi-uli- (Hu. & U., note Armenian which comes from PIE)Hurrianaył*s1xwa-
one*eka/*ika, *badV/*bade (the once-competing forms are mysterious)εἷς*sietsšukki/u (Hu.), šusini ? (U.)Hurrian*hem-/*miya- (but later *miyo-/*miya-)*s1xwa-
two*bigaδύοdān- (H. & L.)šini (Hu.)mina*ku-*jor-
three*(h)irurτρεῖς*téri-kig(a) (Hu.)5,6,16,21Hurrian*eri- (prothetic vowel was probably one of the last changes)*sam-
four*laurτέτταρες*mei̯-(e)u-tumni (Hu.)limmu(2,4,5), limHurrian*k'aṙ- (the [r] remains unexplained, but may be from PIE feminine), č'ogay*otxo-
five*bortzaπέντεnariy(a) (Hu.)ia2,7,9Hurrianhing*xut-
big*(h)andi (one of the *-(t)i? mysteries)μέγας*šalḫa/i-tittaḫtal(a)mi (Hu.)gu-ul(5), gula, gal*méc-a- (later dialect developments into *mec-, *moz- (from genitive) and *menc- (through nasal epenthesis))*did-
long*luzeμακρός*dólugh-i-wūtiker(ašš)i (Hu.)sud/sù/su, gídHurrian*eri-dwāros (?)*grʒ-el-
wide*zabalεὐρύςfrom PIE *plh2-(e)i-hārkimHurriandangal, pešHurrianyaɫt' (unclear etymology but certainly IE)*wrc-el-
thick*lodi, potots (unk. but probably Romance origin), (h)usu, πυκνός (from πύκα, unk.)Hurriangur(4)/kur4/gir8, kulHurrianlayn (IE, but unclear PArm reconstruction)*zrk- "to be thick"
heavy*astunβαρύςfrom PIE *suH-óru-Hurriankul, dugudHurriancanr (from a Kartvelian language meaning "to weigh")*maḳe-
small*guti, *tipiμικρός*komb-(e)i-, amii̯ant- (H.)zeldi (U.)tur*p'uk'u*mcire-
short*laburβραχύςmaninku(u̯a)- (H.) & mannakuna/i- (L.) (both unk., IE?)Hurriangud8Hurriankarč (from an Iranian language)
narrow*(h)ertsiστενός (unk., from PG *στενϝός ?)hatkus (H.)sig/si(-ga), sig-sigHurrianHurriananjuk*ic1ro-
thin*beneμανόςmaklant- (H.)nigalebarak (from Middle Iranian *bārak)*ttx-el- (PGZ)
womanγυνήkuu̯an- (H.), u̯ānā- (L.), kãna- (Lyd.)anna, nimḫutašti/a (Hu.)mí, mu10Hurrian*kan-ay-Kartvelian
man*gizonἀνήρantuu̯aḫḫaš- (H.), *pesōn, zita/i (L., unk.)zari, ta(ɣ)e (Hu.)Hurrian*anir (disappeared Modern Armenian), tła-mard (first element from Syriac ṭalyāʼ "boy", second from PIE *mr̥-tó- "mortal")*ḳac1-
human*gizonἄνθρωπος (IE? Not related to Hittite)antuu̯aḫḫaš- (H.)antūḫtaršuwani (Hu.)lú, naHurrianmard (possibly a cognate to Old Polish smard "plebius" but almost certainly derived from PIE *mr̥-tó- "mortal")Kartvelian
child*seniτέκνονtideimi- (Lyc., unk.), hāssas (H.), nimuwinza- (H. but probably from L. muwita- "seed," unk.)pinuHurriantur, dumu, peš(7)Hurrian*di (pre-PArm *di-t (loss of *-t), post-PArm *di-di-ik (reduplication with *-ik diminutive suffix)), erexay (from Syriac *raxā)*ninw-
wifeγυνήkãna- (L.), *kuwanz (H.)Hurriannitad/lamHurrian *kan-ay-*c1ol-
husband*seNarἀνήρpesnas (gen.s.)Hurriannìta[MUNUS-UŠ]-damHurrian*ayr-ik*ḳac1-, *kmar- (PGZ)
mother*amaμήτηρ*HonnoHurrianama, agarin2,3 ("parent" ?)Hurrian*ma, *na-na, mayr, atta (unk.)*deda-
fatherπατήρatta- (H., IE?), *todo- (all other Anat. languages)agarin(2,3) ("parent" ?), a/e4, ad(a), pa4/pap/pabHurrianSumerianHurrian*ap'i/*ap'u (unk., but common in region), *hayr-/*hawr-*mama-
animalζῷονHurrianmáš-anše (pl.)Hurriankendani*c1xow-el- (PGZ)
fishἰχθύς (prob. IE)parḫūu̯ai̯a- (gen.sing.; meaning unclear)(H., unk. - IE?)Hurrian*ḫa, ku6/kuaHurrian*ju-kn (second element IE but not clearly reconstructable)*ṭap-
birdὄρνιςu̯attai- (H., prob. IE), šu-u̯a-iš (H.)eradi (Hu.)ḫu (original word), mušenHurrian*haw / *haw-k'), tʿṙčʿun*sir-
dogκύων*ḱuon-HurrianurHurrianšun/skund, *ṙungo-*lekw- "puppy" (PGZ)
louseφθείρ (unk.)apxe (Hu.)uḫ(3)Hurrianoǰil (unk.)*til-
snakeὄφιςSumerogram MUS in H. & L. sometimes followed by -illui̯anka-suffix in H. (suffix unk.)illuyankaapši (Hu.)mušHurrian*anwgi*gwel-
wormἑρπετόν, σκώληξ (unk.), ἕλμις (< PG *lymi(n)t- ?) Hurrianmar/murHurrianordn (unk.), *b/p(o)loč/*b/p(o)ɫoč (dialectical), čiču (unk.)*maṭl-
treeδένδρον*dōru-tali (Hu.)ngeš/ngišHurriancaṙ (unk., usually assumed to be from PIE but note Hurrian tali; also note PArm *antaṙ-a- "forest")1el-
forestὕληtii̯ēššar (H.)HurriantirHurrian*antaṙ-a-*tqe(n)->
tree stickβακτηρία, ῥάβδος (PG?)paḫḫin ? (H., unk.)gisngidru/ngidriHurrianHurrian*jaɫg-k-, p'ayt (unk.)*ḳap-, *čxir-/*čxer-
fruitκαρπός*allartro- (unk., from L. r/n-stem)Hurrian*riman-, gurun/gurin, girin/girim, gìrim/gírinHurrian*pteɫ(n) (unk.)Kartvelian
seedσπέρμα*warwal- (unk.), mūu̯a- (H. unk.; L. cognates and H. derivations point to power, offspring)(še-)numunHurrianHurrian*hawt (unk.), serimKartvelian
leafφύλλονparšdu- (H.), ḫurpušta- (L., unk.) & ḫurpašta(n)- (H., unk.)Hurrian(gis)paHurrian*t'er (also meaning "feather," from PIE *pter- "feather," "wing"), terew (from Syriac ṭarpā)*buṭḳa- (PGZ)
rootῥίζαšurka/i- (H., unk. IE?)štupHurrianúr, suḫuš (pl., metaphoric extension from "supports")Hurrianunǰ1 (unk., also meaning "sea floor," "underground," "Underworld"), armat (IE? with suffix *-at "cut")Kartvelian1ir-
tree barkφλοιός (unk.)HurrianHurriankełew (from Semitic origin, cf. Syriac qəlāfāʼ "book sheet," qəlaf "to de-bark (a tree)")*ṭep-
flowerἄνθος (unk., IE?)alil (H., unk.)Hurrianul, gurun/gurin, girin/girim, gìrim/gírin, nínda/inda, índaHurrian*caɫ-k'
grassχλόηkariant (H.), u̯ēlku- (H.), uzuḫri- (H.) & zuḫrit- (L.) both from Hurrian HurrianúHurrianxot*tib-
ropeδεσμός, σχοινίον (PG?, Myc. ko-(i)no)išḫiman- (H.)Hurrianéše, dimHurriantoṙn2, *uláro-*kam-
skinδέρμαašxe (Hu.)su, kušHurrian*mašk (unk.), kaši (from Sumerian via Akkadian kūšu), *der-s-i-*tqaw-
meatκρέαςuʒi (Hu.)uzu, lub[LUL](-bi)HurrianArmenian*qorc- (PGZ)
bloodαἷμα (unk.), ἔαρ*ʔésHrzur-giúš, múd, urin/ùri[ŠEŠ]HurrianArmenian*zisxl-
boneὀστοῦν*ḫaštai̯a-Hurrianngisgag/kak, ngìr-pad-rá[DU] ("bone(s)")HurrianArmenian*qwl-iw- (PGZ), *ʒiʒ1w-al-
fat (n.)δημός (unk.)*se(ǵ)(h)-en- aše (Hu.)ìHurrianArmenian*kon-
eggᾠόνHurriannuz/nusHurrianArmenian*gr-
hornκέρας*krēu̯arHurrianHurrianArmenianKartvelian
tailοὐρά, κέρκος (unk.)ši(e)šai (H., unk., meaning unclear - animal body part but possibly the hoof)HurriankunHurrianArmenian*kwad-
featherπτερόνpattar (H.)HurrianngispaHurrianArmenian*swe- (PGZ)
hairθρίξ (unk.), κόμη (unk.)tappāni- (L., unk.)Hurriansiki/sígHurrianArmenian*tma- (PGZ)
headκεφαλήḫaršar (H., r/n-stem), tarna- (H.), ḫarmaḫa/i- (L., unk.)kašpaɣi (Hu.)sangHurrianArmenian*taw-
earοὖςištāman-/ištamin- (H.) & tummant- (L.)nu(ɣ)i (Hu.)ngeštug(2,3)/ngeštu(2,3) "ears"[PI]HurrianArmenian*qur-
eyeὀφθαλμός (< PG *okwt-aly-(m)- ?)*sṓgwo-ši(ɣ)i (Hu.)iriHurrianArmenian*twal-
noseῥίς (PG?)punɣi /puxxi (Hu.)kiri3,4/kir4/giri17Armenian*c1xwir- (PGZ)
mouthστόμαaiš (H.), āaš- (L.)faši (Hu.)kaHurrianArmenian*qarqa-
toothὀδούςkaka- (H., unk.)šeri/širni (Hu.)zú/su11[KA]HurrianArmenian*ḳb-il- (PGZ, from PGZ *ḳb- "to bite")
tongueγλῶττα*lólo- or *lālo- (unk., onomonopoetic?)irde (Hu.)emeArmenian*nena-
fingernailὄνυξtamma- ? (L., unk., unclear if this could mean fingernail, first element in tammūga- "nail clippings"), šankuu̯āi- (H., used for toenail)HurrianumbinHurrianArmenian*prcxa- ? (Klimov) or *parcx- (Fahnrich)
footπούςpāt- (H.), pāta/i- (L.), pede/i- (Lyc.) ur(n)i (Hu. but ugri "table leg"), kuri (U.)ngìr(i)HurrianArmenian*polo- (reconstructed as "hoof" but "leg" in some reflexes)
legκῶλον (unk.), σκέλοςegdu (H.)Hurrian*pahal- (from Akkadian pahallu)HurrianArmenian*berq-
kneeγόνυgenu- (H.)Hurrian(ngis)gag/kakHurrianArmenian*muql-
handχείρ*gésr-šuni (Hu.), šu- (U.)šuHurrianArmenian*qe-
wingπτέρυξpartāu̯ar & pattar (H., r/n-stems), arut(i)- (L., also "basket" which makes this semantically obscure)Hurrian(ngis)pa, áḫi/aḫ5HurrianArmenian*swe- (PGZ)
bellyγαστήρ (unk.), κοιλίαšarḫuu̯ant- (H.)HurrianSumerianHurrianArmenian
tripeἔντερα, σπλάγχναkarāt- (H.), šarḫuu̯ant- (H.)Hurrianšag4/šàHurrianArmenian*c1iel-, *určx-
neckαὐχήν, τραχηλός (unk., IE?)kuttar ? (H., unk.)kuduni (Hu.)gú, murgu(2)/mur7,8HurrianArmenian*qel-
backνῶτον (IE?)iškiš- (H., unk.)Hurrianḫáš/ḫaš4, edin/eden, murgu(2)/mur7,8, a-gaHurrianArmenianKartvelian
breastμαστός (< PG *mad-do-, *mad-to-, *mad-dho- ?), στῆθος (unk.)tēta(n)- (H.), *tidoi̯i- (PLuw.)neɣer-ni (Hu.)gaba, ubur (female breast)HurrianArmenian*mḳerd-/*mḳrd-
heartκαρδία*ḱ(ē)ršakitiša (Hu.), tišni- (U.)šag4/šà, libiš/lipiš (from Akkadian libbu), ur5[HAR]HurrianArmenian*gul-
liverἧπαρleš(š)i- (H., unk.)urmi (Hu.)mur, ur5[HAR]HurrianArmenian*qwil-
drink (v.)πίνωeku-zi (H.), aḫu- (Pal.), u- (L.)linal- (Hu.)nang/na8HurrianArmenian*xrup- (PGZ)
eat (v.)ἐσθίω*ʔed- / *ʔd-tu, puš "to devour"ul- (Hu.)gu7/kúHurrianArmenian*čam-/*čm-
bite (v.)δάκνωu̯āk- (H.), u̯akk- (Pal.)Hurrianzú...kud/ku5, zú...ra(-ra)HurrianArmenianKartvelian*ḳb- (PGZ)
suck (v.)σπάω*tide/oi-Hurriansub/su-ubHurrianArmenian*cuc-wn- (PGZ)
spit (v.)πτύωtappa- ? (L., unk.)Hurrianaḫ...uš7[KA×LI], uš7...dug4HurrianArmenian*rc1qaw-/*rc1qw- ? ("to eject liquid")
vomit (v.)ἐμέωtar(a)šganiyawant- "vomiting" (H., unk.)Hurrianburu8 (from Akkadian pre-form *'or-)HurrianArmenian*rc1qaw-/*rc1qw-
blow (v.)φυσάω (unk.)parai-i (H.), pariparai- (Pal.) (both from *prā- ?)pušanHurrianmur, ur5[HAR], bun(2)/bu(7, mud6/múHurrianArmenian*s1xar-/*s1xer-
breathe (v.)πνέωHurrianpeš5,6, zi...pa-an-pa-anHurrianArmenian*kwin- "breathing"
laugh (v.)γελάωHurrianisiš2,3, zú...li9-li9HurrianArmenian*cc- (PGZ, Svan lī-cw is similar but unreconstructable), *cc-in- (PGZ)
%Native20.8-24.7%HurrianSumerianHurrianArmenianKartvelian

Abbreviations

H. - Hittite

Hu. - Hurrian

IE - Indo-European

L. - Lydian

Lyc. - Lycian

Pal. - Palaic

PGZ - Proto-Georgian-Zan

PHU - Proto-Hurro-Urartian

PIE - Proto-Indo-European

unk. - Etymology unknown